All X-37B missions have been up orbiting a long long time, over 2 years for each. (Sept. 2017 update)
This would imply that a new radical form of fuel or energy is being used, unknown, and which makes it so secretive and top secret classified, or, some other unconventional explanation, such as a subfield of orbital physics known only to a handful of experts. Who knows, but something ain't right in the reports.
Remember all the lies attached to Hubble, since its first appearance and forever afterwards?
I met the old old lens grinder, Bill Graber, 2002, who ground the lens for Hubble the FIRST time, he was 91 years old when i met him in Brooklyn Greenpoint Library and he took the time to explain to me how screwed up is the data from Hubble, which much astronomy taught in the universities is based on.
He agitated my curiosity, so I followed all the so-called repairs up to the time i met him, and later to 2008. None of those repairs were really truly "correcting" or "successful" as claimed. 2009 was the big repair mission year.
Here are some chronological details:
NASA's Hubble scandal over the defective astigmatic primary mirror ground to the wrong figures never went away and this recurrent error is present in the 2nd replacement mirror. After its launch in April 1990, astronomers found Hubble's 2.4-metre mirror had been ground to the wrong curvature. The space agency had to mount a very costly mission in 1993 to install a new set of optics to correct the problem. Hubble had to be fixed again in 1999 after four of its six gyroscopes stopped working!!
Hubble's original Wide Field and Planetary Camera was replaced with WFPC2 during the First Servicing Mission in December 1993. WFPC2 was built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. There was much worry about the status of the Wide-Field Planetary Camera II (WFPC2) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope and summarize results of re-commissioning tests after the December 1999 Servicing Mission (SM3a) had been fully analyzed. While WFPC2 itself was NOT serviced, there is always concern about contamination or other unexpected effects. Contamination growth rates did indeed increase during the mission (as expected)... WFPC3 ... to insure Hubble's capabilities to carry out superb imaging at optical and near-UV wavelengths to the end of its life, the HST Project had been authorized to lead the development of a new, radial-bay camera to replace the current Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) called WFPC3.
2003 May 23 - Friday
Progress continues on the two main instruments to be installed for the upcoming Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) which has been scheduled for late 2004.
2004 Mission was cancelled and done in 2009.
An Urgent Replacement
In late September 2008, only two weeks before the mission was to launch, a malfunction occurred in one of the systems that commands the science instruments and directs the flow of data within the telescope. The problem was fixed by switching to a backup system, but NASA was unwilling to leave the telescope without a spare. The mission was delayed until May while engineers and scientists tested and prepared an existing and nearly identical system. Astronauts were able to install the spare Science Instrument Command and Data Handling unit in addition to all previously scheduled tasks.
Meeting a Challenge
During Servicing Mission 4, astronauts accomplished a feat never envisioned by the telescope creators - on-site repairs for two instruments: the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). Both had stopped working; ACS after an electrical short in 2007, and STIS after a power failure in 2004. To perform the repairs, astronauts had to access the interior of the instruments, switch out components, and reroute power. The successful completion of this task, along with the addition of the two new instruments, gave Hubble a full complement of five functioning instruments for its future observations.
Preparing for the Future
Since SM4 is expected to be the last astronaut mission to Hubble, one of the goals was to reinforce and reinvigorate the telescope's basic spaceflight systems. Astronauts replaced all of Hubble's batteries, which were 18 years old, with new, improved ones. Astronauts installed six new gyroscopes, which are used to point the telescope, and a Fine Guidance Sensor, which locks onto stars as part of the pointing system. They covered key Hubble equipment bays with insulating panels called New Outer Blanket Layers, to replace protective blankets that had broken down over the course of their long exposure to the harsh conditions of space. And they installed a new device, the Soft Capture Mechanism. This simple device will allow a robotic spacecraft to attach itself to Hubble someday, once the telescope is at the end of its life, and guide it through its descent into Earth's atmosphere.
HISTORY OF ALL HUBBLE REPAIR MISSIONS
(allegedly this was very successful, they tell us)
SM4: May 11-24, 2009
During SM4, two new scientific instruments were installed – the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Two failed instruments, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), were brought back to life by the first ever on-orbit repairs. With these efforts, Hubble has been brought to the apex of its scientific capabilities. To prolong Hubble's life, new batteries, new gyroscopes, a new science computer, a refurbished fine guidance sensor and new insulation on three electronics bays were also installed over the 12-day mission with five spacewalks.
2003 --Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3): The WFC3 Flight infrared Focal Plane Assembly #64 was successfully bonded to the six stage thermo-electric cooler/wedge, which is part of the base assembly. The next steps are to complete the base assembly integration and then complete integration of the hermetic assembly. The WFC3 Optical Assembly was reinstalled into the Flight Enclosure in preparation for post vibration encircled energy testing.
Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS): The COS was shipped back to Ball following testing at Goddard (GSFC). There was a lost-acoustics system functional test at GSFC. Testing at Ball is planned to identify the cause of the problem. The investigation will determine if a short exists between the NUV photo cathode and chassis ground. This new instrument Wide Field Camera 3 will be inserted into HST during the final servicing mission in late 2003 and will serve as a backup to the primary imaging instrument the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). Development of WFC3 is the responsibility of a team made up of the HST Project -- JPL, Ball Aerospace, and the STScI.
NASA's Hubble scandal over the defective astigmatic primary mirror ground to the wrong figures never went away and this recurrant error is present in the 2nd replacement mirror.
After its launch in April 1990, astronomers found Hubble's 2.4-metre mirror had been ground to the wrong curvature.
The space agency had to mount a very costly mission in 1993 to install a new set of optics to correct the problem.
Hubble had to be fixed again in 1999 after four of its six gyroscopes stopped working!!
Hubble's original Wide Field and Planetary Camera was replaced with WFPC2 during the First Servicing Mission in December 1993. WFPC2 was built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.
We are still very worried about the status of the Wide-Field Planetary Camera II (WFPC2) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope and summarize results of re-commissioning tests after the December 1999 Servicing Mission (SM3a) has been fully analyzed on another website. While WFPC2 itself was NOT serviced, there is always concern about contamination or other unexpected effects. Contamination growth rates did indeed increase during the mission (as expected)... WFPC3 ... to insure Hubble's capabilities to carry out superb imaging at optical and near-UV wavelengths to the end of its life, the HST Project has been authorized to lead the development of a new, radial-bay camera to replace the current Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) called WFPC3.
NASA is planning to install WFPC3 in late 2003 Service Mission 4.
Goddard Space Flight Center
Hubble Project - Excerpts from Weekly Report
2003 May 23 - Friday
Progress continues on the two main instruments to be installed for the upcoming Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) which has been scheduled for late 2004.
Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3): The WFC3 Flight infrared Focal Plane Assembly #64 was successfully bonded to the six stage thermo-electric cooler/wedge, which is part of the base assembly. The next steps are to complete the base assembly integration and then complete integration of the hermetic assembly. The WFC3 Optical Assembly was reinstalled into the Flight Enclosure in preparation for post vibration encircled energy testing.
Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS): The COS was shipped back to Ball following testing at Goddard (GSFC). There was a lost-acoustics system functional test at GSFC. Testing at Ball is planned to identify the cause of the problem. The investigation will determine if a short exists between the NUV photo cathode and chassis ground.
This new instrument Wide Field Camera 3 will be inserted into HST during the final servicing mission in late 2003 and will serve as a backup to the primary imaging instrument the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). Development of WFC3 is the responsibility of a team made up of the HST Project -- JPL, Ball Aerospace, and the STScI.
SANTA CLARA, Calif., August 12, 2002 -Emulation Technology (ET) announced that it was chosen by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to provide a custom adapter required in testing the Intel MQ80386-20 microprocessor, an integral part for its Wide Field Camera 3 (WFPC3) project. The WFPC3 is being built to replace the previous camera installed in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the First Servicing Mission (FSM) in December 1993.
Because the WFPC3 project leverages the hardware, software and experience of the previous instruments, the microprocessor used required a custom adapter be created to convert a 164-lead quad flat pack (QFP) into a 132 pin grid array (PGA) footprint. Project engineers, concerned with meeting the assembly schedule, contacted ET during the assembly stage of the project with the urgent request for the adapter [see photo above].
VOYNICH MANUSCRIPTS: On comets and Andromeda Supernovas -->>
Dr. Newbold's methods [the cryptologist] were obscure, yet his findings were dramatic!
He believed he had stumbled on Roger Bacon's "Magnum Opus," the summation of the hidden [occult] achievements of perhaps the greatest scientist of the Middle Ages, in the Voynich Manuscripts, he had been so diligently de-encrypting. One passage in the Voynich Manuscript has Bacon describing (and correctly dating) an eclipse that took place in the summer of 1290. Another passage, taken from a page that bears an illustration of a large, starry diadem, Newbold translated as follows:
"In a concave mirror I saw a star in the form of a snail...between the navel of Pegasus, the girdle ofAndromeda, and the head of Cassiopeia."
Astronomers confirm that this is a valid description of the great nebula in the constellation Andromeda, which we now know to be a spiral galaxy. [We know today that supernovas when they explode, or "burst", emit the same amount of energy, in just a few "burst" seconds, that our sun emits in its entire lifespan, in its entire cosmic existance, in the form of gamma radiation!
Other facts that Newbold "discovered" in the Voynich manuscript include the date of a comet that appeared in 1273, and a method for refining copper from ore.
Newbold's decipherment credits Bacon with the invention of the microscope, and the telescope, and with discoveries both micro- and macroscopic, that have remained hidden to science still to this day.
"THE EARTH ROTATES EASTWARD:
Ponderings upon the Coriolis Force and Comet Ikeya-Zhang"
There seems to be quite a lot going on in "rotational directions," and "angular mechanics," and "centripetal acceleration" in this current ongoing, online debate, over the path of Comet Ikeya-Zhang, and for many important reasons.
I just wanted to bring up here, at this time, the notions of clockwise and counter-clockwise motions, and how sublimely important they are, in ocean and wind currents, electromagnetic energies, sun spots, solar flares, coronal mass ejections, planetary body revolutions, lunar revolutions, and pure magnetic plasma swirl patterns. Not to mention missile trajectories or the launching and orbiting of space vehicles -- or a comet in motion.
WE LIVE IN A SINISTER WORLD
The ancients argued tediously over the motion of the svastika -- should the direction be moving with the arms going clockwise "sinistroverse", or counter-clockwise "destroverse". [dextroverse? -- dextrose is glucose sugar "refined," meaning it is "processed" artificially in a refinery (like petroleum and ammonia), from corn starch. Dextrose is an artificial super-sweetener and is produced by an enzyme "conversion" of corn starch, and then "refined" by ion-exchange-demineralization]. GELATIN--GLUE, or gelatigenous or glue-forming tissues, occur in the bones, skins and intestines of all animals, and that by extraction with hot water, these agglutinating materials can be removed, and the solution on evaporating and cooling yields a jelly-like gelatinous glue substance [horses' hooves were once used to make glue].
The Nazis, in more recent history, usurped this same ancient svastika symbol-- for their own devices -- selecting the more "sinistro" of the two emblems, the sinistroverse swastika, after dozens of false starts, where even Hitler himself was at times confused which direction the arms of the svastika should be rotating [look at historical photos from 1932 to 1943, and you will find lots of swastikas in both directions of the arms, willy nilly].
The vast majority of wind and ocean currents run clockwise [sinistroverse], in the Northern Hemisphere, but "down under" in Australia, they go just the reverse, i.e. counterclockwise [destroverse].
==Inertial Forces and Inert Gases==
THE CORIOLIS EFFECT ====>>>> "Let the Force Be With You"
[The Coriolis Force is an inertial force acting on a body at right angles
to the body's direction of motion]
Our Earth's basic ocean-atmosphere system works by means of the density of water as a function of pressure, and not nearly so much as a function of salinity nor temperature, as the "experts" would lead you to believe. When you get down very deep into the cold depths of the ocean, the salt fades away, at least that is what the mermaids say in the old Atlantean and Celtic legends, and i really don't think any U.S. Naval nuclear sub has gotten anywhere near the bottom of the 16,000 foot deep trench under Antarctica to dispute this [at median depths, the Antarctic Ocean has a mean temperature of 31.1 degrees Fahrenheit, below freezing, but this watery ocean still retains its liquid form]!
The Earth is in the shape of a top, not a sphere. It is slanted at 23.5 degrees from the celestial perpendicular, which means the spinning top that embodies the Earth is slanted like a conch shell at a "tilt" of 23.5 degrees, probably to enhance circulation of water throughout the planetary body's internal components. A conch shell lying on its side, or standing on its end, rather than tilted 23.5 degrees from the perpendicular, would not be nearly as perfect a facilitator for moving currents adroitly throughout the liquid and labyrinthine Earth!
Most of the water of the Earth comes from the bottom third of the spinning top, from the Antarctic Bottom Waters, and they flow upwards to the North Atlantic and North Pacific. The very highest regions of our spinning-top, our planet Earth, in the far north, has the shallowest oceans, and for this reason, without possessing any great depths, their ocean bottoms are the warmest and saltiest of the Earth [and not the tropics]!
Therefore, it should come as no surprise, that the seabed of the Antarctic Bottom would not conduct electricity, for there is no salt at that deep deep depth. Pure water is a very bad, if not a horrible or impossibly uncooperative superconductor. Salty water, however, is conductive, the saltier the more conductive. Thus, the seabottom of the Greenland and North Polar Circle region, is the most conductive of the planet's seas! Very very little water from the North Atlantic Deep Water flows downward, a little may reach Iceland.
The Gulf Stream is an example of a wind-driven surface current. The wind driven circulation is strongly affected by the rotation of the Earth, known as the Coriolis Acceleration.
And we are all quite aware of the Coriolis Effect, aren't we?
[if not, see http://www.physics.ohio-state.edu/~dvandom/Edu/newcor.html ]
This near-surface-wind driven atmospheric circulation is one of a number of major processes taking place in the atmosphere and the oceans that cause a GLOBAL REDISTRIBUTION OF HEAT, from the Equator to the POLES.
One of the most important advances in the physical sciences in the last 45 years is the realization that the oceans and atmosphere act in a STRONGLY COUPLED SYSTEM. Just ask the folks at NOAA or at NASA.
This strongly coupled atmosphere and oceans system is what regulates our global climate.
The famous Sargasso Sea, near Bermuda, contains the Bermuda Triangle, that place where both sea ships and space ships have disappeared for over 500 years -- this sea is a clock-wise rotating body of water, that has enormous depths.
Amazingly, water has a changeable freezing temperature, which most people never stop to consider. The higher the pressure becomes, the lower the freezing point of water becomes. Isn't that remarkable!! It can remain a liquid going down well below 32 degrees Fahrenheit, given enough pressure. What water becomes at incredibly high pressure, at lower and lower temperatures, is still unknown to science. Some say it is stronger than steel, a quasi-state, that makes quantum-states look puny. With incomprehensible pressures set at enormous values, some think that water could remain a liquid at even ZERO K, what was heretofore mistakenly called "Absolute Zero"
WATER SUBSTITUTES -- Trehalose and Hydrazine
At very frightful depths in the Sargasso Sea, the water is really awfully cold, and certainly below 32 degrees Fahrenheit. Take for example, for comparison's sake, an inferior liquid --- such as hydrazine. Hydrazine just simply screws up at this pressure and depth, it hasn't a chance in hell to function in this deep sea environment, like water does! Hydra- [zine] can't be hydro, and that is a real dog gone pity.
Here is a declarative sentence taken from a NASA manual: "Although some special precautions must be taken to prevent hydrazine from decomposing in the presence of impurities, it is a stable molecule, and once those precautions have been taken, it essentially handles like water" [please try to believe that].
Hypergolic propellants, such as hydrazine, are fuels and oxidizers which ignite spontaneously on contact with each other, and require no ignition source! The easy start and restart capability, of hypergolics, make them ideal for spacecraft maneuvering systems. [do you know what liquids do in the zero gravity of space? Water has the remarkable trait that even in the zero gravity of space, it has its same surface tension properties as on your dining room table].
Since hypergolics remain liquid at normal temperatures, they do not pose the storage problems of cryogenic propellants [which must be kept at extremely low sub-zero temperatures]. Hypergolics are highly toxic and must be handled with extreme care.
Ironically, the hypergolic, hydrazine, is being used as a health remedy by some in our medical establishment, injected into the bloodstream of cancer patients, as a "cure". An analogy would be, "If you shoot a cancer patient with a revolver, you kill the cancer too".Hydrazine is a clear, nitrogen/hydrogen compound with a "fishy" smell. It is similar to ammonia. Nitrogen tetroxide is a reddish fluid. It has a pungent, sweetish smell. Both fluids are highly toxic, and are handled under the most stringent safety conditions.
One might just as rationally inject trehalose, a sugar, i.e., a non-reducing disaccharide, into the patients' veins! [see mannose; manna; honeydew -- for quite interesting comparisons and contrasts]. TREHALOSE could quite soon play a role in blocking tumor growth, which seems to be a bit more human-user friendly, than hydrazine [but we are NOT recommending trehalose-6-phosphate!].
Trehalose,Biochemistry. C12H22O11, a disaccharide of glucose present in the hemolymph of a variety of insects, and stored in odd bacteria and fungi, instead of starch.
The artificial sweetener, trehalose, was discovered in soil-dwelling microscopic animals that periodically dry up, but return to life when water is added. Trehalose is thought to temporarily take the place of water, in the animal's cell structures, during dehydration, preventing damage. Trehalose is now being tested to store live-virus vaccines, and blood substitutes.
Trehalose is a non-reducing sugar and therefore does not react with amino acids or proteins as part of Maillard browning. Trehalose has a very high GLASS TRANSITION temperature compared to other disaccharides. This allows trehalose to remain stable under a greater range of temperature extremes, providing additional stability to GLASS SYSTEMS into which it might be industrially incorporated. In addition, TREHALOSE glasses are more resistant to moisture gain than other saccharide GLASS SYSTEMS. Trehalose is stable under low pH conditions where other disaccharides typically undergo various reactions, such as hydrolysis into their component monosaccharides.
Hypergolic fuels commonly include not only hydrazine, but also monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (UDMH).
The oxidizer is typically nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) or nitric acid (HNO3). UDMH is used in many Russian, European, and Chinese rockets, while MMH is used in the orbital maneuvering system (OMS), and reaction control system (RCS), of the US Space Shuttle orbiter. The Titan family of launch vehicles, and the second stage of the Delta, use a fuel called Aerozine-50, a mixture of 50% UDMH -- and 50% Hydrazine.
HAN (Hydroxylammonium Nitrate)
An element such as ARSENIC, would never suffice to do the job of water, in our delightfully complex, eco-balanced, home planet Earth, because arsenic is the only element that passes directly into a vapor, without ever melting! Arsenic also reverts to a crystalline solid, without ever liquefying, upon the cooling of the ARSENIC GAS vapors.
Arsenic never has a liquid form! In addition, arsenic is an outstanding oxidant [oxidizer], so it is in no way a Noble [i.e., Inert] Gas, for inert gases can never oxidize -- just try to oxidize with Argon or Xenon. Argon is used to shield harmful radiation, out of control laser beams, free radicals, and other dangers, from our bodies. It is also what makes the Geiger Counter at the nuclear plant work well, if at all.
Now on to: FUTURE SPACECRAFT, especially the Beal BA-2 Hydrogen Peroxide fueled rockets and "satellite symbiots".
There are only a few non-cryogenic oxidizers available: red fuming nitric acid, nitrogen tetroxide, and hydrogen peroxide are the obvious choices. Of these, only hydrogen peroxide is non-toxic.
It has other advantages as well. It is very dense (1.432 g/cc in 98% concentration).
Hydrogen peroxide has only a vapor pressure about one-ninth that of water.
Hydrogen peroxide is relatively inexpensive because it is an ordinary industrial chemical, rather than a dedicated rocket propellant. Because it is a good coolant, ordinary JP-5 rather than expensive RP-1 can be used as a fuel of choice.
Hydrazine, when used directly, it is an oxygen scavenger and energy source. When hydrazine is used as an intermediate, it is essential to the production of a number of important chemicals and polymers. In 1953, Arch Company pioneered U.S. production of hydrazine to fuel the first Titan rocket. In the fifty years since that first flight into space, there have been countless new applications for this propellant.
Currently, the PLASTICS INDUSTRY uses hydrazine derivatives in the creation of blowing agents and polymerization initiators. Use of these derivatives is also being investigated for the formulation of polymers.
One final remark, pertaining to the extreme radiation and zero-gravity dangers to humans journeying through space.
The Space Shuttle only goes to about 500 kilometers out there, and doesn't have the capability to go significantly higher than that, energy-wise. Communication's satellite orbit is most often set at 36,000 kilometers. Roughly half the energy to get to geosynchronous orbit is consumed in just getting to an orbital speed. Satellites and shuttles use Ultra Pure hydrazine monopropellant for guidance once in orbit.
When the Space Shuttle carries a communications satellite up, it brings it only above the atmosphere to the 500 kilometer orbit. From there, the satellite is removed from the cargo bay, and then it is launched into a geosynchronous orbit, 36,000 kilometers up, using its own fuel propellant, which makes up most of the cargo in the Shuttle bay. The satellite is a very small part of the total weight of the cargo. But this is another issue for another place. So long.
When we have more and more astronauts going out further than the Space Shuttle, we will see tragic health consequences, it is certain.